It is known his mother was a Polish European, his father was of African ancestry, and he was born in Poland.
His life stands testament to a determination to confront those people and those obstacles that sought to diminish him and the world in which he lived. It reveals a man, though rendered breathless in his prime, whose strong heart still beats loudly.”
n 1921, he chaired the Pan-African Congress in London and, in 1922, he became the Labour Party’s secretary election agent for Shapuril Saklatrala, an Indian-born communist activist in North Battersea. He worked for Saklatrala until 1924 when the Communist and Labour Parties split.
Across the Americas, the Spanish and Portuguese and then the Dutch were heavily involved in trading Africans to the New World. By 1663, England’s Royal Adventurers to Africa were fully involved as well, regularly offering slaves for sale in the West Indies for £17 each .
Many of the enslaved Africans were branded with the initials ‘DY’, standing for Duke of York. They were shipped to Barbados and other Caribbean islands to work on the new sugar plantations, as well as further north to England’s American colonies.