After the success of the Little Rock Nine, Bates continued to work on improving the status of Black people in the South. Her influential work with school integration brought her national recognition. In 1962, she published her memoirs, The Long Shadow of Little Rock. Eventually, the book would win an American Book Award.
The Alabama state police brutally attacked the marchers, using fire hoses, dogs, and tear gas
“It was just so much a slap in the face, a punch in the gut,” Mrs Semien told CBS News. “It was just belittling him. You know, that we can’t bury him because he’s Black.”
Context: Barack Obama wins the 2008 US Presidential election, the first time that a person labelled Black has been elected to this position.