During a lecture to students at Howard University, Stokely Carmichael speaks about the movement of black people toward unity with a clear, common ideology based on science. He stresses black people must put theory into practice – organize and take action. He speaks about the differences between revolutionary and reform movements; Pan-Africanism; the All African People’s Revolutionary Party; scientific socialism; nkrumahism; capitalism; and imperialism.
Trinidad and Tobago
Michael de Frietas, later known as Michael Abdul Malik and Michael X, was a controversial black revolutionary figure born in Port-au-Spain, Trinidad in 1933. He was mixed-race. Iona Brown, his mother, was working-class and a known African spiritualist in their community in Trinidad. His estranged father, Emmanuel de Frietas, was Portuguese and resided in St. Kitts where he accumulated wealth from his chains …
In his provocative yet enduring interpretation, Williams re-framed the history of the British Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, its concomitant European incarnations, and established the contribution of Caribbean slavery to the development of Britain and America.