Between 1810 and 1940, nearly 35 thousand people were exhibited in world fairs, colonial exhibitions, zoos, freak shows, circuses and reconstructed ethnic villages in Europe, America and Japan. Some 1.5 billion visitors attended these events.
Hundreds of African Americans moved to the Soviet Union escaping racial discrimination in the 1930s. At home, African Americans faced a lack of prospects and restrictions which separated them from society. Fed up with constant prejudice, several hundred African Americans left the ‘land of dreams’ to live freely in the Soviet Union.
From approximately 1525 to 1866, an unknown number of captive Africans were forcibly transported across the Middle Passage to serve as slaves in the New World. Life aboard slave ships was agonizing and dangerous; it is thought that 2 million slaves perished on their journey across the Atlantic.
In Paris, Césaire met Senegalese Léopold Sédar Senghor and French Guiana’s Léon Damas. Together they started the journal L’Etudiant Noir (The Black Student) in 1934 to bring together students from Africa and the West Indies. The journal explored the expression of a Pan-African worldview under colonization.
Shell routinely blames the damage on sabotage and criminal activity. According to Shell, Nigerian law requires it to pay compensation for spills caused by operational issues but not for damage resulting from sabotage.
The French state does not compile racial statistics, which is illegal, describing it as part of its commitment to universalism and treating all citizens equally under the law. To many scholars on race, however, the reluctance is part of a long history of denying racism in France and the country’s slave-trading and colonial past.
The Act defines discrimination as treating a person less favourably than another person o grounds of colour, race, or ethnic or national origins in the provision to the public of goods, facilities and services, and in employment and housing.
The Parekh Report
Commission on the Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain
Concern about West Indian children and their performance at school was expressed as long ago as the early 1960s. For instance, in 1963 a study by Brent LEA found the performance of West Indian children was, on average, much lower than that of white children in reading, arithmetic and spelling.