Hakim Jamal

Encyclopaedia Africana M February 26, 2021 MICHAEL X

Michael de Frietas, later known as Michael Abdul Malik and Michael X, was a controversial black revolutionary figure born in Port-au-Spain, Trinidad in 1933. He was mixed-race. Iona Brown, his mother, was working-class and a known African spiritualist in their community in Trinidad. His estranged father, Emmanuel de Frietas, was Portuguese and resided in St. Kitts where he accumulated wealth from his chains …

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